Monday, 8 October 2012

First rung - ETL401 - Critical reflection

Critical reflection: - There and back again

As a library technician with over 20 years’ experience in a TAFE library I believed that it was time for a role change. I wanted to work with children in an education environment: to teach students to love the attainment of knowledge and to appreciate using literature in all its forms. To this goal I focused my studies towards teacher librarianship. Despite coming from an academic library background, I have discovered that there is much more to the teacher librarian role than I had previously considered. One revelation was the concept of TLs directing and teaching other teachers (ASLA & ALIA, Standard 3.1, 2004). I had considered TLs to be equally qualified, to teachers rather than having higher qualifications.

Information literacy
My understanding of the concept of information literacy has undergone a radical upgrade. In my blog “Third rung” (Burnett, 2012c), I discussed the role of supporting students through an improved information literacy program with each class. The illustration I presented was in relation to information skills – defining, locating and using information. Now I link other essential skills such as, feelings, thoughts, values, dispositions within my understanding of “Information Literacy” (Kuhlthau, 2004), improving my understanding of student learning by relating the processes they progress through.  I consider it to be an advantage for students to know in advance that anxiety and confusion is an expected part of the process. I believe that this will assist me in guiding students to develop transferable literacy abilities for “lifelong learning”, enabling them to continue independently long after they have left the academic arena, rather than limit my TL role to that of a resource provider (Burnett, 2012d).

I have found the literature to be extensive and provocative; not only the set pieces but the abundance of information located in texts and online that provoked me to review my ideas, such as Todd’s statement that that “Information Literacy is the bridge between ‘Learning to read’ and ‘Reading to Learn” (Burnett, 2012e). These texts have encouraged me to take into account so many new processes that I had not considered essential to successful learning; holistic learning styles, information search processes, guided inquiry strategies (Kuhlthau, Maniotes & Caspari).

I struggled with first assignment. After reading the comments on the return of the assignment, I recognised that I had not been working at Masters Level. My goal for assignment 2 is to meet the level expected. The 12 ASLA/ALIA standards of professional excellence for teacher librarians, which was the basis of the first assignment, provided me with guidelines of obtainable objectives that I as a TL can aspire to, rather than a mandatory checklist of skills (ASLA & ALIA, 2004).

Blogs & Forums
To blog or not to blog… social media has not been an aspect of technology that I have been acquainted with in the past. The need to create and use a blog challenged not only my technical skills (Yang, 2009), I was also surprised and encouraged to find that I was not the only one with blogging dyslexia.  After my experiences this semester, I now regard social media as effective learning tools and can see a definite use for this technology in giving students and staff the opportunity to question, share and receive information and reflect on progress.
I discovered that the forums filled a gap that I believed would be lacking in online education, notably student contact and the sharing and debating of ideas and theories (Burnett, 2012f). Far from this case, many of the posts from my fellow students and teachers were ideal continuations of threads that merged with and illuminated my own thoughts. I have found contributing to the forum difficult at times owing to my lack of knowledge of educational procedures, but retrospectively, the posts and comments on the modules highlighted the value of collaboration that comes from sharing ideas with classmates and obtaining their opinions and timely support when needed (Fraser; Kayte, 2012).

Has my view of TLs changed? When I consider my first submitted blog in this arena, it was to reflect my climb through “uninformed knowledge emerging with an insight of the role of the TL” (Burnett, 2012a,). My view of the ‘library’ role of a TL has not changed radically, but there has been a change in my more informed view of the ‘educational’ role of the TL. I was well aware that TLs accomplish much more than just “check out books” (Purcell, 2010). However, until perusing the literature and participating in the forums, I had never considered that TLs would have the need to persuade an educational team to work together. The most revealing statements came from my classmates; that TLs have to prove their worth not only to their fellow teachers but to the principal, whose support of any library program is essential for success (Burnett, 2012b, Burnett, 2012g; Crowe, 2012). I have come to realize that I should become professionally involved in associations such as the School Library Association of Queensland, in the hope of raising the profile of my future profession.
Overall, my view on the role of the teacher librarian has been enlightened and expanded and I’m confident it will continue to evolve as I progress with my studies and within my future career as a teacher librarian.

Australian School Library Association & Australian Library and Information Association (ASLA & ALIA). (2004).
Standards of professional excellence for teacher librarians. Canberra: ASLA
Retrieved from

Burnett, S. (2012a, July 9). First rung. [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Burnett, S. (2012b, September 9). Ninth rung- Blog Task #2: The role of the teacher librarian in practice with
regard to principal support. [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Burnett, S. (2012c, July 26). Third rung: We need to rock the boat. [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Burnett, S. (2012d, July 29). Fifth rung – Blog task #1: Assessing information literacy and inquiry learning in
regard to the practice of teacher librarians. [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Burnett, S. (2012e, September 24). Eleventh Fifth rung – Blog task #3: Information literacy is more than a set

Burnett, S. (2012f, July 22). Topic 1: Online support. [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from

Burnett, S. (2012g, July 28). Topic 2: Teacher librarian evangelism. [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from

Crowe, T. (2012, July 29). Topic 2: Support. [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from

Fraser, C. (2012, September 19). Not exemplary, but for what it’s worth: Ass 1 subforum. [Online forum
comment]. Retrieved from

Kayte. (2012, September 19). Re: wasting my time: Ass 1 subforum. [Online forum
comment]. Retrieved from

Kuhlthau, C, C. (2004). Seeking meaning: a process approach to Library and Information Services. Westport,
            Connecticut: Libraries Unlimited.

Kuhlthau, C, C., Maniotes, L, K. & Caspari, A, K. (2007). Guided Inquiry: Learning in the 21st century.
 Westport, Connecticut: Libraries Unlimited.

Purcell, M. (2010) All Librarians Do Is Check Out Books, Right? A Look at the Roles of a School Library Media
 Specialist, Library Media Connection, November/December 2010, Vol. 29 Iss. 3 Pp. 30-33.

Yang, S. H. (2009). Using Blogs to Enhance Critical Reflection and Community of Practice. Educational
Technology & Society, 12(2), 11–21.

Monday, 24 September 2012

First rung - ETL401 - Blog task #3

Information literacy is more than a set of skills.

It is difficult to acquire a conclusive classification of information literacy. The literature presented me with a lack of clarity within the writings of the experts, who themselves appear to be unable agree on a definable understanding on what information literacy is. I believe that Bruce (1997, P. 10), was correct when she stated that as teachers ‘our understanding of Information Literacy (IL) is problematic’. Langford (1998) also believes that those responsible for teaching don’t appear to truly understand the information process let alone information literacy. Eisenberg and Small (1993, p. 269) defined IL as ‘‘acquisition methods, information seeking and problem solving procedures’’ however Eisenberg (2008) later defined IL as the ‘‘basic skills set of the 21st century’’.
To be information literate is, according to Lloyd (2007, p. 182), to be able to “access and evaluate information, to think about information, and to demonstrate and document the process of that thinking”, while Todd, (2000) states that “Information Literacy is the bridge between ‘Learning to read’ and ‘Reading to Learn’”.

My perspective of information literacy has altered from first seeing it as a set of skills to be taught and mastered, to now considering the rote list of skills to be only one part of the adaptive process that is information literacy. This view is supported by the readings that describe information literacy as a process that encourages the learner to discover, understand, evaluate and make use of a range of information from a variety of sources (Abilock, 2004) as a process that can be scaffolded within the curriculum.
The ability to seek, critically evaluate, synthesize and use information conveyed by means of spoken language, print and multi-media, is as an essential skill to learn for information age students as “learning the “three R's” were for people educated in the 1950s”. (Queensland Dept. of Education, 2000, p. 9).

 How will i make it happen in my school.
The development of information literacy as an accepted process within the schools curriculum will require the teacher librarian to collaborate with all stakeholders, showing all involved the benefits of collaboration to themselves, each other and their students (Small). TLs can establish an information literacy model such as Kuhlthau’s ISP, Herring’s PLUS model or Eisenberg and Berkowitz’s Big 6 model to develop the groundwork critical thinking through the scaffolding of IL skills.
TLs must collaboratively format the use of IL skills within the curriculum, ensuring the student are able to transfer these skills from subject to subject and across all media, according to Newman (2010) the term transliteracy, embraces the use of all the developing information medias, and is “the social construction of meaning via diverse media.” (Ipri, 2010, p. 567).

School learning environments are designed to nurture the development of information literacy skills, which are essential to 20th century knowledge. Information Literacy must be an enduring process by scaffolding acquired and transferable skills that will empower students in their “lifelong learning”. Teacher librarians, as a information literacy teacher can contribute to this process by using a guided inquiry model and the school library as a laboratory (Kuhlthau, Maniotes & Caspari, 2007) to provide not only teaching and learning resources for our students, but the skills required to locate, evaluate and comprehend information through the use of multiple ICT technologies and formats, assisting them to continue independently long after they have left the academic arena


Abilock, D. (2004). Information literacy: an overview of design, process and outcomes.

Bruce, C. S. (1997). The Seven faces of information literacy. Blackwood: South Australia. Auslib Press.

Cooke, N. A. (2007), Preventing plagiarism and library anxiety. In Clayton, S. J. (Ed.),
Going the Distance: Library instruction for remote learners (pp. 73-79). London: Neal–Schuman Publishers.

Eisenberg, M. B. (2008). Information Literacy: Essential Skills for the Information Age.
DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology, 28(2), pp39-47

Eisenberg, M. & Small, R. V. (1993). Information based education – an investigation of the
nature and role of information attributes in education. Information Processing and Management, 29 (2). pp. 263-275.

Ipri, T.(2010). Introducing transliteracy. College & Research Libraries News, 71(10), 532-

Kuhlthau, C. C., Maniotes, L. K. & Caspari, A. K. (2007). Guided inquiry: learning in the 21st
century. Westpoint, Connecticut.: Libraries Unlimited

Langford, L (1998). Information literacy: a clarification. School Libraries Worldwide, 4(1),
pp. 59-72.

Lloyd, A. (2007). Learning to put out the red stuff; becoming information literate through
discursive practice. Library Quarterly, 77 (2), pp. 181–198p. Retreved from

Newman, B. L. (2010). The Role of Libraries in a Transliterate World.

Queensland. Dept of Education.  (2000). Literate futures: report of the literacy review for
Queensland state schools.  Brisbane, Qld.:  Department of Education. Retrieved from

Small, R. V. (2002). Collaboration: Where Does It Begin? Teacher Librarian, 29(5)

Todd, R. (2000). A theory of information literacy: In-formation and outward looking. In C.
Bruce, & P. Candy, (Eds.). Information literacy around the world (pp. 163-175.) NSW, Australia: Centre for Information Studies, Charles Sturt University

Wednesday, 19 September 2012

First rung - ETL401 - Management

Topic 6 - Management

Managing my time is always my biggest failing… procrastination is my MO, so Wilson's article on opting what to give 100% to was illuminating but very scary… 100%!!

So I must plan my day – and break it down into manageable chunks of time in order to achieve set tasks and balance what I need to achieve against what I can achieve.

Gilman’s article on librarians/library staff not listening to one another struck a chord. In collaboration do we find that we only agree with the opinions we already accept or do we only agree without intending to really ‘change’ anything at all and retain the existing state of affairs. ‘Change’ is not to be found in the vocabulary of some of the older style librarians.

Of the two persons that inspire me the most at my institute, when I thought about them, I discovered that they both exhibit the same approaches when working with both staff and students
They both have a science degree; one is an access teacher and the other a campus Librarian and my mentor, however they both:

Display an incredible amount of enthusiasm, at all times.

Put the requirements of staff and students foremost

Works collaboratively with all other staff, planning with others to organize the best support for classes within the library and in general classrooms

Are extremely good communicators, getting their own ideas across clearly as well as being willing to accept new ideas from others

Does not take work home; they have made a conscious decision to separate work and private life

Passionate about learning and the library and shares this passion with all around them

Love the idea of new technology, the using, the buying, incorporating into teaching

Sunday, 9 September 2012

First rung - ETL401 - Blog Task #2

The Role of the Teacher Librarian in practice with regard to Principal support
The readings have enhanced my understanding of the collaboration required between teachers, teacher librarians (TLs) and school principals, collaboration that is essential to achieve the shared goal of all three parties, a successful student learning outcome.

The principal’s support of any school library program will be essential to its success (Shannon, 2009); and various readings suggest that this support is critical to the successful development of any integrated learning program (Farmer, 2007; Hartzell, 2002; Haycock, 2007; Morris, 2007 & Oberg, 2006). TLs know that successful student learning is determined by their positive collaboration with the school community and explicitly with that of the principal (Farmer, 2007, p. 2). This holistic collaboration benefits not only the individual parties but the school community as a whole (Farmer, 2007; Haycock, 2007; Morris, 2007), as there is evidence supporting increased student achievement being connected with the close involvement of TLs and the services they provide (Haycock, 2007; Todd, 2003).
Within the readings, I have observed that where Principals understand and support collaboration between TLs and teachers, they are more likely to value collaboration and communication between the TL and the administration (Todd, 2003); allowing TLs to assume a central role in student achievement when their essential contributions are recognized (Kuhlthau, Maniotes & Caspari, 2007, p. 55).

Conversely, not all principals are aware of the benefits the TL can present to both students and teachers. TLs must alter this perception as a principal’s primary source of information regarding the benefits of a library program is the school TL (Hartzell, 2002b). Brophy (2001, p. 9) suggests ‘libraries should demonstrate that they are providing viable services, based on improving and supporting teaching, learning and research, because the fact is that that much of what libraries actually achieve is intangible to management’. Farmer (2007) proposes that TLs must lead by demonstrating the benefits of collaboration between all participants; Principals must be shown that with committed support, the teaching role of TLs need not be limited to students, but can be extended to deliver effective professional development to teachers (Todd, Gordon, & Lu, 2011). This can be encouraged by Principals allocating the appropriate professional development funds and time allowances (Hartzell, 2002a; Morris, 2007).

The readings present a disparity in the quantity and quality of cooperation that TLs receive; principals are a major factor in the Library and the TL achieving or not achieving a strong library program (Oberg, 2006). Teachers who recognise the commitment of the principal to the school library and observe its support will also be willing to commit and collaborate with its programs (Todd, Gordon, & Lu, 2011). 
Should TLs trap principals into attending library conferences, as Snyder (2004) suggests, or encourage Principals to observe their teaching programs and planning sessions showing how they contribute to the school and enhance achievement as Haycock (2004) advocates. This is born out by Small, (2002) who stated that, "Collaboration cannot be fully realized without creating a collaborative culture in which all partners see the importance and understand the benefits of collaboration to themselves, each other and their students".

In looking back over the readings, I understand that TLs need to be active in informing their principals in regard to what they do, in order that they can gain support in continuing this process. They need to have an active part in planning, administration and curriculum committees. Collaboration must continue with the library as a central pivot point of learning and the TLs as the ‘gatekeeper’, taking responsibility for ongoing communication with all participants, Teachers, Teacher Librarians and Principals to continue the collaboration (Kuhlthau, Maniotes & Caspari 2007, p. 58).


Brophy, P. (2001). The library in the twenty–first century: new services for the
information age. London: Library Association publishing.

Farmer, L. (2007). Principals: Catalysts for collaboration. School Libraries Worldwide,
13(1), pp. 56-65.

Hartzell, G. (2002a). What’s It Take?’ (presented at the Washington White House
Conference on School Libraries in 2002).

Hartzell, G. (2002b). The multiple dimensions of principal involvement. School
Libraries Worldwide, 8(1), 43-48

Haycock, K. (2004). Evidence-based practice. Teacher Librarian, 32(1), p. 6.
Retrieved from

Haycock, K. (2007). Collaboration: Critical Success Factors for Student Learning. School
Libraries Worldwide 13(1). pp. 25-35.

Kuhlthau, C. C., Maniotes, A. K. & Caspari, L.K. (2007). Guided Inquiry: learning in the
21st century. Westport, Connecticut: Libraries Unlimited.

Morris, B. J., & Packard, A. (2007). The principal’s support of classroom teacher-media
          specialist collaboration. School Libraries Worldwide, 13(1), pp. 36-55.

Oberg, D. (2006). Developing the Respect and Support of School Administrators.
Teacher Librarian, 33(3), pp 13-18.

Shannon, D. M. (2009). Principals’ Perspectives of School Librarians. School
 Libraries Worldwide. 15(2)

Small, R. V. (2002). Collaboration: Where Does It Begin? Teacher Librarian, 29(5)

Snyder, T. (2004). Gaining the Hearts of Administrators. Teacher Librarian, 31(4). P. 75.

Todd, R. J. (2003). Irrefutable evidence: How to prove you boost student achievement.
School Library Journal. Retrieved from

Todd, R. J., Gordon, C. A. & Lu, Y. (2011). One common goal: Student learning:
Executive Summary of Findings and Recommendations of the New Jersey School Library Survey Phase 2. New Jersey Association of School Librarians (NJASL). Retrieved from

Monday, 3 September 2012

Different levels of appreciation

Different levels of appreciation
It is amazing how you make a mark on the lives of some of our students without realising it. I work in Queensland in a TAFE library with between 600 and 900 students through the doors each day; a majority of our students that we work closely with are English as second language students. Last Friday a colleague and I were discussing the closure of two department libraries and the sacking of all the staff from those libraries, as well as the pending sacking of some of the staff from our own library. An international student overheard us discussing this situation and jumped to the conclusion that our library was going to close: she and the others around her were horrified at the prospect, they offered to sign anything, wanted to know who they could talk to about it, one even offered to protest (somewhere) to get it changed.     
We get thanked by teachers and sometimes by students for helping them with their projects or referencing or IT problems, but I believe that we as TLs or Librarians don’t realise how much some students value the support that we give and a place of learning that we provide. One students summed it up when she said “Oh my God, what am I going to do, where am I going to go to get someone to help me”.
On one hand we have Government who don’t appreciate us and what we do and close us down, and on the other hand we have students who really need us and are willing to fight to keep us, the ‘light bulb’ moments when I can help a student to get it, are why I love working in libraries. 

Tuesday, 21 August 2012

Information Literacy

Information Literacy

Just as the capacity to read, write, and understand has evolved to include the current technology of the day, the learned ability to understand information, be it called Information Literacy, critical literacy, digital literacy, functional literacy, information literacy, information skills, study skills and even environmental literacy is evolving and seems to be changed by how it’s used and the perspective of who’s using it (Langford,  1998)    

An intriguing argument arises where 'information literacy is a concept that has been developed by academics, business and government’, but I find it a bit strange that they cannot agree on what comprises Information Literacy, while we as TL’s (and Librarians) have to develop programs that will achieve this and in the meantime still instruct students what is, how it’s used and when they might use information literacy skills.
  • reflect on their ability to identify a purpose for and creative use of information and ideas both within the school and elsewhere
  • transfer information skills across subjects and year levels in the school
  • transfer relevant information skills from school to further/higher education and to the workplace
  • learn and adapt to new information skills required in many workplace setting

The last 4 points of Herring and Tarter’s (2006, p.3) view of information literacy is close to the model that we use at TAFE. Where the literate student can:
I instruct students every day on ‘information literacy’, but after the reading I find that I still have so much to learn.  

Tuesday, 14 August 2012

First rung - ETL401 - Principals and TLs

Principals and TLs

Many of the reading have stressed that it is the TL (or media specialist), not the Principal, that has the responsibility to start discussions in regard to developing collaborative learning programs between the TL’s and the teachers within the school environment.
The abilities that TL’s exhibit have contributed to improving student learning outcomes, confirming that students can benefit from TLs who create and implement effective  library programs. This should not come as a surprise to school principals, as TLs and education Librarians have existed for quite some time and their skills have been developing over that time, they have not just suddenly arrived. Besides they hired them they, (principals) should know what they are capable of.

I have known Librarians/TLs who have large staff and bigger operating budgets than educational managers, but are still not treated by Directors /Principles as any more than manipulators of texts and ignore their actual abilities. In reality, as stated by Oberg, numerous ‘Principals aren't even aware of the potential of the teacher librarian’. On the reverse side some Directors /Principles go out of their way to support and encourage TLs to do everything in their power to influence and improve student learning outcomes.        

Librarians and TLs are introverted by nature, we (on this forum) and elsewhere tell each other what we can do and achieve but are we telling those who can make a difference, to our field and from us to the students.

Farmer, L. (2007). Principals: Catalysts for collaboration. School Libraries Worldwide, 13(1), 56-65.

Hartzell, G., (2002) 'What's It Take?' (presented at the Washington White House Conference on School Libraries)

Haycock, K. (2007). Collaboration: Critical success factors for student learning. School Libraries Worldwide, 13(1), 25-35.

Morris, B. J., & Packard, A. (2007). The principal's support of classroom teacher-media specialist collaboration. School Libraries Worldwide, 13(1), 36-55.

Oberg, D. (2006). Developing the respect and support of school administrators. Teacher Librarian, 33(3), 13-18.

Sunday, 29 July 2012

First rung - ETL401 - Blog task # 1

Assessing information literacy and inquiry learning in regard to the practice of Teacher Librarians

In 1974, Paul Zurkowski originally used the term ‘Information Literacy’ in a paper presented to the US National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, the paper illustrated information literacy as an ‘individual’s capacity to use information tools and primary sources to address problems’ (Bruce, 1997, p. 5).
Information literacy is, according to Lloyd, “to know when there is a need for information, access and evaluate information, to think about information, and to demonstrate and document the process of that thinking”, (Lloyd, 2007, p. 182).

With today’s hyper profusion of evolving data, quality information literacy must become a key focus of my teacher-librarianship, by imparting competencies in my students that provides for the application of critical thinking and inquiry learning. No traditional fifty minute instructional lesson on information seeking strategies can give students the awareness they need for the encounters of today's information environment (Manuel, 2007. p. 127).

Kahlthau states that ‘teacher-librarians play a vital role in creating inquiry learning’ through information literacy instruction programs (Thomas, Crow & Franklin, 2011. p. 167). My instructional methodology must create learning activities that assist students in discovering concepts and understanding information, rather than allowing them to rely on rote information in textbooks.
Information literacy must encompass all mediums that will be presented to students, and be entrenched into the institutions online learning framework to achieve results (Ferguson, 2009. p. 25), to be proficient in transliteracy, embracing the use of all the developing information Medias, not just skills in using journals and databases (Newman, 2010). However no matter what the source, students must be taught to work through a checklist of criteria such as accuracy, bias, and timeliness of a source, to ask meaningful questions in relation to the work they are critiquing.

This instructional methodology should give students the skills needed to become information literate, however, the ALIA/ASLA professional standard 2.4 Evaluation -  states that excellent teacher librarians: ‘evaluate student learning to provide evidence of progress in information literacy and reading’ (ALIA/ASLA, 2004).

Therefore as a diagnostic tool, assessment of information literacy learning must be used to evaluate programs in regard to student and programme effectiveness (Lupton, 2004. p. 19). This assessment must be implemented in order to avoid perpetuating a divide between information literacy and the curriculum.

The most successful assessment techniques are those that can be folded into the inquiry process without interrupting the process of learning (Kahlthu, Caspari & Maniotes, 2007, p, 131) the purpose of assessment is to identify if learning has taken place and where students need guidance and instruction.

As Callison (cited in Thomas, Crow & Franklin, 2011. p. 168) states, all teacher-librarians must aid students in developing metacognitive thinking in their transliterate world, take advantage of the relationship between critical thinking, information skills instruction and inquiry learning, to go beyond lessons that only supports the search and recall of ‘facts’, or correct answers that camouflage incorrect ideas (Burns, 2005).
In giving students the tools to think critically, evaluative and utilise information in order to apply, question and understand, I must as a teacher-librarian, together with teaching teams, empower students to be able to use these abilities in “lifelong learning”, assisting them to continue independently long after they have left the academic arena.

The Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA) and the Australian School
Library Association (ASLA) (2004). Standards of professional excellence for teacher librarians, retrieved from

Bruce, C. (1997). The seven faces of information literacy. Blackwood, South
Australia: Auslib Press

Burns, M. (2005). Looking at How Students Reason. Educational Leadership, 63(3),
26. retrieved from EBSCOhost

Ferguson, A. (2009). Information literacy skills for undergraduates at Charles Sturt
University. University Libraries. InCite: News magazine of the Australian Library and Information Association 30(9), 24-25

Kahlthu, C. C., Caspari, A. K. & Maniotes, L. K. (2007). Assessment in guided
inquiry. In Guided inquiry: learning in the 21st century (pp. 111-131). Westport, Conn: Libraries Unlimited.

Lloyd, A. (2007), Learning to put out the red stuff; becoming information literate
through discursive practice. Library Quarterly, 77(2), pp. 181–198p. Retreved from

Lupton, M. (2004). The learning connection: Information literacy and the student
experience. Blackwood, South Australia: Auslib Press.

Manuel, K. (2007). Creating and using an information literacy toolkit for faculty. In
Clayton, S. J. (Ed.), Going the Distance: Library instruction for remote learners (pp. 125-138). London: Neal–Schuman Publishers.

Newman, B. L. (2010). The Role of Libraries in a Transliterate World.

Thomas, N.P., Crow S.R. & Franklin, L.L. (2011). Information literacy and
information skills instruction: Applying research to practice in the 21st century school library (3rd Ed.). Santa Barbara, California: Libraries Unlimited.